Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Javier Yeo, Joel Tio, Kay Sandy Maung, Elgin Ng
Class: S2-02
Group Reference: B


1. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
Investigation of the effect of different variables on the evaporation of water


2. Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:
Title: An investigation of the factors that affect the rate of evaporation of distilled water


A. Question being addressed

A student wanted to find out some of the factors that affect the rate of evaporation.
The independent variables are the surface area of the distilled water in the beaker, Temperature of water at the start of experiment in the beaker, purity of the distilled water in the beaker.
The dependent variable is the rate of evaporation of the water inside the beaker
The constant variables are the volume of the solution in the beaker and the rest of the independent variables except for the one being tested.


B. Hypothesis

The hypothesis is the independent variable affects the rate of evaporation such that it may either increase or decrease in such a way that it will not remain the same.

C. Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


Equipment
  1. 100ml measuring cylinder
  2. 1 hotplate
  3. 1 250ml beaker
  4. 1 500ml beaker
  5. 30 grams of salt
  6. Stopwatch
  7. 2 litre of Distilled water
  8. Electronic Weighing Scale
Experiment for Control
  1. Set the temperature of the hotplate the maximum.
  2. Put the 500ml beaker onto the hotplate
  3. Pour 100 ml of distilled water into the 500ml beaker.
  4. Wait 10 minutes for the distilled water in the 500ml beaker to evaporate.
  5. Wait 5 minutes for the water to cool down
  6. Measure the leftover water in the 500ml beaker with the measuring cylinder.
  7. Calculate the amount of water that has evaporated by deducting the leftover amount of water from 100 ml
  8. Repeat the experiment 3 times
  9. Calculate the average amount of water evaporated for the 3 experiments
  10. Calculate the average rate of evaporation by dividing the average amount of water evaporated by 10.
Experiment for Temperature of Water
  1. Set the temperature of the hotplate to heat level 3.
  2. Put the 500ml beaker onto the hotplate
  3. Pour 100 ml of distilled water into the 500ml beaker.
  4. Wait 10 minutes for the distilled water in the 500ml beaker to evaporate.
  5. Measure the leftover water in the 500ml beaker.
  6. Wait 5 minutes for the water to cool down
  7. Calculate the amount of water that has evaporated by deducting the leftover amount of water from 100ml
  8. Repeat the experiment 3 times
  9. Calculate the average amount of water evaporated for the 3 experiments
  10. Calculate the average rate of evaporation by dividing the average amount of water evaporated by 10.
Experiment for Light
  1. Set the temperature of the hotplate to maximum.
  2. Put the 500ml beaker onto the hotplate
  3. Pour 100 ml of distilled water into the 500ml beaker.
  4. Turn off all the lights in the room and roll the curtains down.
  5. Wait 10 minutes for the distilled water in the 500ml beaker to evaporate.
  6. Measure the leftover water in the 500ml beaker.
  7. Wait 5 minutes for the water to cool down
  8. Calculate the amount of water that has evaporated by deducting the leftover amount of water from 100ml
  9. Repeat the experiment 3 times
  10. Calculate the average amount of water evaporated for the 3 experiments
  11. Calculate the average rate of evaporation by dividing the average amount of water evaporated by 10.
Experiment for Surface Area (250ml)
  1. Set the temperature of the hotplate to maximum.
  2. Put the 250ml beaker onto the hotplate
  3. Pour 100 ml of distilled water into the 250ml beaker.
  4. Wait 10 minutes for the distilled water in the 500ml beaker to evaporate.
  5. Wait 5 minutes for the water to cool down
  6. Measure the leftover water in the 250ml beaker.
  7. Calculate the amount of water that has evaporated by deducting the leftover amount of water from 100 ml
  8. Repeat the experiment 3 times
  9. Calculate the average amount of water evaporated for the 3 experiments
  10. Calculate the average rate of evaporation by dividing the average amount of water evaporated by 10.
Experiment for Wind
  1. Set the temperature of the hotplate to maximum.
  2. Put the 500ml beaker onto the hotplate
  3. Pour 100 ml of distilled water into the larger 500ml beaker.
  4. Turn on all the ceiling fans to max.
  5. Wait 10 minutes for the water to evaporate.
  6. Wait 5 minutes for the water to cool down
  7. Measure the leftover water in the 500ml beaker.
  8. Calculate the amount of water that has evaporated by deducting the leftover amount of water from 100 ml
  9. Repeat the experiment 3 times
  10. Calculate the average amount of water collected for the 3 experiments
  11. Calculate the average rate of evaporation by dividing the average amount of water collected by 10.                       
Experiment for Purity (Amount of salt)
  1. Set the temperature of the hotplate to maximum.
  2. Salt the distilled water with 10 grams of salt.
  3. Pour 100 ml of distilled water into the 500ml beaker.
  4. Put the 500ml beaker onto the hotplate
  5. Wait 10 minutes for the water to evaporate.
  6. Wait 5 minutes for the water to cool down
  7. Measure the leftover water in the 500ml beaker.
  8. Calculate the amount of water that has evaporated by deducting the leftover amount of water from 100 ml
  9. Repeat the experiment 3 times
  10. Calculate the average amount of water collected for the 3 experiments
  11. Calculate the average rate of evaporation by dividing the average amount of water collected by 10.                                                       





Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
There is the risk of burning ourselves with hot water or the set-up due to the high temperature. We should wear safety goggles and not touch the set-up unless absolutely necessary.


When the beaker runs out of water, there is a risk that it may crack and shatter. We should constantly check the beaker to see if it has already run out of water and remove it from the heat if it has.


Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
  1. Wait 10 minutes for the water to evaporate.
  2. Measure the leftover water in the ml beaker.
  3. Calculate the amount of water that has evaporated by deducting the leftover amount of water from 100 ml
  4. Repeat the experiment 3 times
  5. Calculate the average amount of water collected for the 3 experiments
  6. Calculate the average rate of evaporation by dividing the average amount of water collected by 10.      
The smaller the amount of water left in the beaker, the more the factor tested affects the rate of evaporation.


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.


U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey (2014, April 15). The Water Cycle: Evaporation:Why evaporation occurs. Retrieved from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleevaporation.html


(n.d.). EVAPORATION, SURFACE AREA, TEMPERATURE, AND SEAWATER ‘Explanation’. Retrieved from http://www.bigelow.org/virtual/handson/evap.html


Kurup P. (n.d.). What are the 6 factors that affect the rate of evaporation? Retrieved from http://www.preservearticles.com/201012231561/factors-affecting-evaporation.html


Jeff H. (n.d.). Rate of Evaporation paragraph 6. Retrieved from http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints2/470/


Alan & Hui Meng. (n.d.). actors affecting rate of evaporation. Retrieved from http://www.vtaide.com/png/evaporation.htm

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